What is pasteurization like?
This is a heat processing of the milk from 63°C to 95°C degrees. The pasteurization destroys the harmful microorganisms which got into the milk during its production. In this manner its durability is increased up to 15 days, with observation of the relevant hygienic norms of packaging.
UHT is an abbreviated designation of heating processing of the milk at Ultra High Temperature of 140°С for brief time or it may be said a process of sterilization. All the vegetative forms of the microorganisms and their spores are destroyed during sterilization, which guarantees the preservation of the qualities of the milk at room temperature up to 6 months.
Why is the expiry date of the products longer than it was years ago?
The high degree of hygiene during the production guarantees a longer time period of durability. The production is performed with state-of-the-art facilities in the equipment fully within a closed type of the technological treatment – from the acceptance of the raw milk to its pre-packaging and packaging as a ready-made product. The maintenance of the hygiene of the equipment – washing and disinfection are also completely automated, which reduces to a minimum the possibility of contamination during production.
Why does industrial yoghurt not have any cream?
Industrial milk and yoghurt do not have any cream because they are subjected to additional technological processing, called - homogenization. The fatty particles are destroyed to very small units, which reduces the possibility for separation of the the milk fat and formation of cream. Homogenization was introduced into industrial production at the end of the eighties as it provides for a better commercial appearance of the products.
What is raw milk first category like? What other categories are there?
Raw milk, which satisfies the European requirements for hygiene of the milk production: the total quantity of the bacteria in the milk is low, in levels acceptable in conformity with the standards. The first category of the milk is designated by the sign of an ellipse and a BG number. Second category milk is also admitted for consumption in Bulgaria at the moment and it should be dropped out from year 2014.
Why when I drink milk, I feel sluggish?
One of the main ingredients of the milk is the milk sugar (lactase). It is a disaccharide which under the effect of the enzyme β-galacsidase is disintegrated into more easily absorbable sugar. The absence or the reduced production of this enzyme in some people is the reason for the so called lactose intolerance. With the availability of such a problem it is recommendable to substitue the consumption of milk with yoghurt where lactose occurs in fermentation.
Probiotics are a concentrate of active microflora – lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, which get into the digestive tract of the person and through fermented lactic acid products enrich it with useful bacteria. The probiotics are needed for the appropriate functioning and provision of the life balance of human organism.
How do we get Bulgarian yoghurt?
Bulgarian yoghurt is a product which is obtained with lactic acid fermentation under the effect of two main microorganisms: Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, which are in mutually dependable connection, useful both for their development and survival and for the quality of the product. Fermentation is possible only when they are together, and each of the bacteria plays a certain part in this process.
Are there any other lactic acid bacteria?
There are various kinds of lactic acid bacteria, which are divided into two main species: rod-like and coccus-like bacteria with a great diversity of strains which provoke fermentation of the milk. The rod-like lactic acid bacteria refer to species Lactobacillicus – and include further to Lactobacillus bulgaricus also L.helveticus and L.acidophilus. And with the coccus-like from species Streptococcus, representatives further to S.thermophilus also are: Streptococcus lactis and S.cremoris subsp.Diacetylactis. Species as Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. reuteri, the bifidobacteria and certain kinds of Lactococcus lactis, are the main known probiotic bacteria, which may also participate in the composition of the milk and contribute to its healthy characteristics.
Why is the preservation of dairy products in a refrigerator important?
Milk (whether yoghurt or fresh milk), is a live natural product, which biochemical processes occur all the time in under the effect of the microorganisms which got into it. This is why each change of the temperature regime of its storage results also in a change of its taste and physical qualities. In event of storage in a refrigerator, for instance, yoghurt preserves its quantities up to 21 days. When, however, the temperature of storage increases, the bacteria in the yoghurt start to develop more actively and in this manner they result in souring or deformation of the product.
What is buttermilk/serum in yoghurt like? It is good to have it?
When you leave yoghurt open at room temperature for about 15 minutes, buttermilk (whey) should separate from it. This is one of the signs that the product is natural and does not contain any additional additives: starch, conservant, vegetable oils and so on. Whey is a natural lactic serum, which contains lactoalbumins, lactoglobulins, lactose and mineral salts – all of them very useful for the appropriate functioning of human organism.
How is different fat of the products obtained?
Milk obtained from the farms is skimmed and is divided into two containers: with skimmed milk and cream. After that it will be mathematically calculated what quantity of beaten milk and/or cream should be added to obtain the desired fat in conformity with the relevant product standard.
May I give skimmed products to a child up to the age of 7?
Rendering an account of the world data about healthy nutrition, it is recommended that milk and/or dairy products with contents of fats (in yoghurt and in milk) of over 3 % in a quantity of 425 gr per day should be included in the menu of children over one year old every day. These quantities and contents of fats were ratified by the Ministry of Health in the Bulgarian legislation, concerning healthy eating in children’s establishments and kitchens. Fat soluble vitamins and minerals, a part of the spectrum of useful substances provided by the milk, are contained in the fat of the milk, which are of significance for the building up of the children’s organisms.
Which are the useful substances in milk?
Some of the most useful substances which are contained in milk are Calcium, vitamins of group В (as nicotinic acid), vitamin С, choline, vitamin A, E, biotin and other micro- and macro-elements.
How is butter produced?
Butter is produced of cream, which is produced from milk. After that the cream is pasteurized and cooled. It is soured with butter yeast from lactic acid microorganisms: Str.lactis, Str.diacetilactis, Leus.cremoris. A process called biochemical maturation commences in consequence of the activity of the bacteria – at temperature from 8° to 12°С (depending on the seasons) up to reaching certain acidity. Aromatic substances form and accumulate during this technological stage in the butter, which are the result of the disintegration of the fats, proteins and the carbohydrates of the cream. Physical maturation follows up which is related to the maintenance of lower temperature for a certain time up to reaching certain acidity. The butter is then beaten and washed with water and semi-hard mass with spreading consistence is formed during the last stage – mechanical treatment for consolidation.
How is cheese produced?
Milk is pasteurized at temperature 68°С, which destroys the harmful microorganisms that got into it during its production and after that it is cooled up to the temperature of curdling. Curdling is stated in addition of rennet yeast, lactic starter and calcium chloride. Processing follows up curdling which includes repeated cutting, turning of the curd, pressing with subsequent salting of the pieces cut up. After arrangment in tins, a process of maturation of the cheese follows up. Fermentation processes take part in the curd during this time period of 25 to 60 days at a certain temperature, resulting in disintegration and modification of the proteins, fats and milk sugar, turning into products easily absorbable for the organism. Aromatic products accumulate during the process of maturation, which give cheese its specific taste and fragrance.
How do you verify consumers’ complaints?
There is a ratified procedure for signals and complaints from clients and consumers in the enterprise. It includes: prompt verification and analysis of the control tests in the enterprise up to the end of their expiry date; analysis of the results and subsequent measures for the prevention of established problems concerning the safety and the quality of our dairy products. Each package is marked by a batch number and time of production, which helps for the fast tracing down of all the processes performed along the chain – from the purchase of the raw milk to the delivery of the ready-made product to the sites – in conformity with the batch and even of the single package.